The University Of Louisiana's National Championship Weightlifting Teams

The University Of Louisiana's National Championship Weightlifting Teams

A Companion Book to the Documentary The Ragin' 13

image: weightlifter

The University Of Louisiana's National Championship Weightlifting Teams

The University Of Louisiana's National Championship Weightlifting Teams

A Companion Book to the Documentary The Ragin' 13

University of Louisiana’s National Championship Weightlifting Teams

by Warren A. Perrin, Attorney at Law

Part Three: The Culture of Winning

Chapter 2 – The Mid 1960s

We seemed to have a love-hate relationship with the coaches of the other athletic teams and the physical education professors. Some loved us for the favorable attention our victories brought to the athletic department, yet some resented us and were jealous of our achievements and of our unusual independence. George Weatherford tells this anecdote which is illustrative of the relationships:

Warren, here’s another interesting story. Joseph Murry Jr. and I were going to work out on a Saturday. The handball room a/k/a “the dungeon” was locked. We wanted to get inside. There was this big thick oak door between us and the weights. Joe and I worked out together often. I tried to break the door down, but I just bounced off of it. Joe said stand back—which I did. With a burst of energy like he was doing a jerk with 400 pounds, Joe kicked the door and it split right down the middle! We went in and worked out and left. The following Monday it was announced to everyone that there was a big investigation led by Coach “Dutch” Reinhardt, Jim’s father—one of our most ardent supporters and defenders—and the PE professors. They confronted us about it. We lied and denied that it was us. They knew it was us, but the matter was immediately dropped.


We were always operating on a shoestring and sometimes we had to be creative with raising funds to go on some of out-of-town trips. Although Coach Reinhardt and Whitey Urban supported us, many of the other head coaches, like Falkinberry, did not like us. George Weatherford sent this amusing account of an incident that he experienced making arrangements for us to go to a weightlifting meet in Texas:

We had a meet in either Dallas or Austin. Urban was out of town. I had to go to Russ Falkinberry, the head football coach and assistant athletic director, to get two cars and a credit card. Russ told me I was not getting two cars for the trip. Russ was an ass! Anyway, he did give me a university credit card and told me to use my car—a 1952 Chevy with old “may pop” tires on it and it did not run very well. So, I went to the full-service Gulf service station on Johnston St. and told them that I wanted a complete tune up: change the points and plugs, change the oil and filter, grease it up and adjust the timing. Also, I had them put on four new tires and fill it up with gas. After we returned to Lafayette, I went right back to the Gulf station and had them fill up my old car before I returned the credit card to the athletic department. I was proud that we had won another weightlifting meet thus keeping our undefeated record intact and that I had gotten my four new tires! A couple weeks later a runner came to the gym from Russ’s office saying he wanted to see me right away. I finished my workout and walked to his office. He screamed at me and showed me the bill from the Gulf station. I told him it would have been too dangerous to go with my old worn out “may pop” tires. He turned beet-red. I had never seen him so angry. Anyway, as usual Whitey Urban came to my rescue. Russ Falkinberry hated me. He told me he would love to get me on the football field. I said, “I don’t think so” and walked out. I did not like him either and he knew it.


Poss Major was gifted with legendary leg strength. His lifelong friend Alvin Chustz sent this email relating an incident where Poss demonstrated not only his superb leg strength but his agility to complete a snatch:

Here is a story about Poss. For those of you who knew him you probably remember how large and powerful his legs were. Well, once we were at a meet in Texas and Poss was lifting in the 165-pound class. He was attempting a snatch of 225 pounds. He executed a great pull and dropped under the bar in a full squat. Everything looked good until the bar began to slowly move forward. We all know what happens when the bar does this—you lose the lift. Well, Poss was having none of that. In order to save the lift, he began to “duck walk” from the middle of the platform with the weight above his head. He waddled while in a deep squat all the way to the very front edge of the platform, regained his balance and stood up to complete a good lift. I might point out that he is now 77 years old and at a bodyweight of less than 160 pounds he bench presses 225 pounds for eight reps.


Here is a story from Weatherford exemplifying the depth of our team in 1968:

There were two competitions in one day, the AAU Louisiana State Championship in New Orleans, Louisiana, and the Southwest AAU Region Three in Dallas, Texas. We told Whitey Urban that we could win both meets by splitting up our team and providing good competition experience for our younger lifters. He emphatically said, “no, because to do so you would risk losing our long winning streak.” We disregarded his adamant instructions. We did it anyway and we won both meets! I went into his office on Monday and showed him the Region Three first-place trophy from Dallas. Urban said, “I told you to just go to one meet.” I then reached behind the door where we had hidden the other trophy and showed him the first place trophy from the Louisiana meet. Urban “went bananas” and screamed out to his secretary Bonnie, “call the newspapers, the radio stations, the television stations and get the fabulous news out.” He was so happy. But, not with me who had disobeyed him. However, he soon got over it.


On April 24, 2020, Weatherford sent the following email to me. He was one of the UL lifters who was on the team winning four National Collegiate Weightlifting Championships from 1965 through 1968:

Warren, we won four nationals in a row! 1965, 66, 67 and 68! I know this because I lifted in all four meets. The 1965 meet was in Michigan State University, 1966 was in Maryland, and both 1967 and 1968 were in Lafayette. While in college, I lifted in 23 meets and I took three seconds, one third, one fourth and won 18 meets. Here is a list of the major meets that we won every year from 1965-1968: Louisiana State Sr. Championships, the YMCA Christmas Weightlifting Championships, Gulf Coast AAU championships, Southwest Collegiate Championships, Southern Intercollegiate (1963-66), Ozark Mountain Championships, North Texas Region Three AAU Championship, NOAC Weightlifting Championships and the National Collegiate Championships.


In an interview with The Daily Advertiser in 1989, when he was inducted into the UL Athletics Club Hall of Fame, Alvin Chustz said to a journalist:

We trained ourselves. Everyone had extraordinary self-discipline and a great desire to succeed. We read everything we could on the sport. Bob Hoffman had published an issue of Strength and Health magazine that showed sequential photographs of the three lifts, and we would study that to improve our form. Our workouts were like constant tryouts. The 1966 team was by far the best we ever had, and we left behind in Lafayette some lifters who could probably had finished second if we had been able to enter two teams. We always had great depth.


Due to our reputation as winners, we often had students drop by and ask to join the team. Bill LeBlanc remembers how one request was handled by our George Weatherford:

I was a freshman on the weightlifting team in the Fall of 1967. George Weatherford, Paul Muffoletto and a few other lifters were in “the dungeon” weight room training. A USL student entered the weight room and said he heard about the success of the weightlifting team and wanted to tryout. His bodyweight was between 180 and 190 pounds. Weatherford asked if he had any experience and his reply was, “not much but I am eager to learn.” The student was told most lifters on the team already had experience in Olympic lifting. George asked him what the strongest part of his body and his reply was his legs. George looked at me, the smallest and youngest lifter on the team at only 123 pounds and had an idea to see if the student was capable. George loaded 225 pounds on the Olympic bar perched on the squats racks and told the student, “if you can squat more reps than Bill, we will train you to be a good lifter.” I told him to go first, and he squatted 17 reps. Now, it was my turn. I started slowly then picked up the pace. When I reached 17 reps, I felt pretty good, so I continued to 25 reps. I still had more in me, but it was time to quit. The disappointed student didn’t say much; he just thanked us for the tryout and quickly left the room. Needless to say, after doing all those squats, I couldn’t walk without pain for about a week. I’m pretty sure George knew I wasn’t going to let him beat me. My legs were my biggest asset to my lifting.


Jay Trahan sent the inspirational email reproduced below showing how we were all committed to one goal: team victory. It was not about individuality, but all of our work and planning was moving toward the goal of keeping our winning streak intact. What Jess Shows did to make sure we won one meet at the NOAC posed a threat to his own health, yet he did it for the good of the team:

I remember one important meet when due to an illness we did not have a 132-pound lifter to compete for the team. About a week before the meet, Jess Shows, who was normally a 148-pound lifter, decided that he would try to help the team by dropping down from the 148-pound class to the 132-pound class and give us a chance to score some points in that weight class. For several days before the meet, he ate very little. What was so special about this was that Jess was already a very trim 148-pounder. On the day of the meet, he knew he was still a little over the weight limit of 132 pounds, so he just ate nothing. After a four-hour drive to New Orleans on a cold December Saturday, we arrived at the meet and Jess did an early weight check and disappointedly he learned that he was still a couple of pounds over the weight limit. As a last resort, Jess endured several hours sweating it out in a steam room, chewing on gum and spitting in a plastic cup. Finally, he made the weight—barely. After losing the 16 pounds in so short of a period of time he looked like a walking skeleton. Tellingly, the crash course to lose weight quickly caused him to be light-headed and weak. To conserve his diminished energy during the competition, he attempted only one lift in each lift category. He placed first. Jess took one for the team. We won a tight team contest and defeated the NOAC team. I am sure that Jess remembers that day and how much we appreciated his sacrifice for our team victory.


Another outstanding member of the team was James “Jim” Reinhardt, the son of the long-time USL coach and athletic administrator J.C. “Dutch” Reinhardt. Jim received his Ph.D. in chemical engineering and was a member of the UL faculty for many years. He and his father form the only father-son members inducted in the UL Athletics Hall of Fame. Reinhardt won two national championships in the 148-pound class. In 1967, he finished second. At his induction, Reinhart said, “We coached ourselves and gave each other tips. Lifters are a wonderful breed. They were all interested in helping the sport. I enjoyed the association with all of the guys working out and traveling to meets in old junky cars. It was fun to be part of the team. We were like a fraternity on the cutting edge of the burgeoning sport.”

Here is a revealing story about Whitey Urban provided by Alvin Chustz and Dr. Lynn W. Aurich: In 1965, the team members were in their training room in the old gym. They were doing a variety of training exercises. Chustz was doing a set of “high-pulls” which is a training exercise that we all did because it is the first movement in all three lifts, the press, snatch, and clean and jerk high pulls. The high-pulls helped to develop full-body power. The exercise requires one to pull the weight up from a dead stop on the floor. The movement had to be done explosively with the bar loaded with more weight than the lifter can clean. Alvin was using some heavy weight. Unexpectedly, Whitey Urban walked in “the dungeon” carrying a clip board with papers. He was just paying a friendly visit to see how we were doing, which we appreciated, because no one else in the athletic department paid any attention to us despite being undefeated in all of our competitions. Alvin was doing sets of three repetitions each. After the third rep he lowered the weight on the floor. Whitey then said, “Son, if you can’t lift that weight all the way up the first time, don’t keep trying. You will hurt yourself.” Not wanting to embarrass Urban, Alvin told him that he was doing the exercise to increase his pulling power. With that Urban turned and walked out never to return to “the dungeon.” We all stared at each other in disbelief and then broke out into uproarious laughter. It was clear that Whitey meant well but knew nothing about training for weightlifting. We had no coach or supplies and little equipment which is why the long-running accomplishments of the teams over the years was so remarkable. We coached and supported each other and made do with whatever was available. It was a great time in our lives.

On December 4, 1965, UL hosted the Southern USA Intercollegiate Weightlifting meet on the campus of USL in Lafayette, Louisiana. David Berger participated in the meet representing Tulane and won first place in the middleweight class with lifts of press of 265 pounds, snatch of 245 pounds and clean and jerk of 300 pounds for a total of 810 pounds. Berger was awarded the Best Lifter trophy for the meet. Mike Blumenthal of LSU finished second with a total of 755 pounds and Joseph Poss Major of USL finished third with a total of 750 pounds. This was my very first collegiate meet as a freshman, and I finished in fourth place with a total of 745 pounds.

George Weatherford sent me this email retelling the story of the team going to compete in the Ozark Mountains Weightlifting Championships in Little Rock, Arkansas on January 29, 1966. While out-of-state, the Ark-La-Tex Region was hit by a massive ice storm causing us to have a very difficult time getting back to Lafayette:

We were in an ice storm! We had two cars but one’s radiator froze up. We decided to pull the car by attaching it with a large rope. I drove the car that pulled the disabled car for about 300 miles. No one wanted to ride in the disabled car because the frozen generator would not allow the heater to come on resulting in the car becoming a frozen ice box. Obviously, we were not used to driving on hilly roads that were covered in sheets of ice so at various times one or both of our vehicles was skidding to and fro. We could have been killed! Oh well, to make matters worse, we were also never invited back to the meet because we behaved rather unsportsmanlike. Because we were the reigning national champions, and they were so excited to have us compete in their meet they also asked that some of us volunteer to be judges of the weightlifting and bodybuilding competitions. They were not happy with our performances as so-called independent judges because our lifters got way too many of the green lights and their lifters far too many red lights. Not unexpectedly, we of course won the weightlifting competition and continued our undefeated streak. To make the relationship between the Cajuns and the Razorbacks even worse, we also persuaded Pat Stewart to enter their bodybuilding competition. He was competing against an Arkansas native who had recently won the title of Mr. Arkansas, so he was the odds-on favorite to easily capture the crown. Surprisingly, we won that title also! There were four judges and Alvin and I were two of them! Mr. Arkansas got two 0’s and Pat got tens from Alvin and me! Following the meet, we celebrated our smashing victories by getting drunk on beer and Big Bear wine and raised hell in the YMCA where we were sleeping. The meet director complained of our admittedly unprofessional behavior to Whitey Urban who was naturally very unhappy with our sophomoric behavior. Needless to say, we were banned from ever returning to their meet.


Here is how Jess Shows remembered the same unforgettable trip to Arkansas:

We went up to Little Rock in cars owned by Poss and me. The meet was on a Saturday at the YMCA. We had rooms at the YMCA. I think the room rate was $2. It snowed on Saturday. Some of the fellows couldn’t afford the $2 for the second night, so they checked-out and snuck back into the YMCA and spent the night on the floor in our rooms. Some of us had rooms on the second floor. After we won the meet, we went out for dinner and bought some beer and brought it up to the rooms on the second floor. There was a roof outside the window so to keep it cold we put the beer outside the window in the snow on the roof. When we checked out the next morning, the clerk said that since we were such a good group of guys, he wouldn’t charge us for the second night. There was heavy snow, and it was very cold. Being poor Cajun boys living in South Louisiana, it should be noted that Poss had bald tires on his car, and we had to be very careful. After a few miles, the engine on his car began to overheat. The radiator froze up due to the lack of antifreeze. Luckily, I had a large rope in the trunk of my car, and we pulled Poss’s car. Some guys stayed in Poss’s car, but due to the cold and freezing breaths on the inside of the windshield, eventually they came in my car. But someone had to stay with car in tow to wipe the windshield so that Poss could see. By the time we found a road to some little town, the windshield had only a small hole for Poss to look through. Luckily, we found a station that was open on Sunday. The attendant said to pull Poss’s car into one of the bays. He defrosted the frozen radiator and filled it up with the proper amount of antifreeze. We asked if he knew a place where we could get breakfast and he sent us down the street where some older lady ran a rooming house. She served up a wonderful family-stye breakfast with biscuits, grits, eggs, bacon and sausage. After our ordeal, it was a welcomed feast. To be sure that we would make it safely back home, we bought two sets of snow chains for our cars from the station with a USL credit card. This is my best memory of the event that happened over 50 years ago. Great memories!


One of the lifters who had the most natural strength was Jay Trahan of Abbeville, Louisiana. He could dead lift a phenomenal amount of weight. He was a member of our 1967 and 1968 National Collegiate Championship Teams. He sent this email to me:

From my recollection of trips with the New Roads group I do remember their passion for celebrating our victories and they were memorable! After all we were unchaperoned college students. Great memories.


Because we were always broke, we sought out the cheapest beer in the French Quarter to celebrate our victories in New Orleans. This turned out to be La Casa’s bar which became our favorite hangout. The following romantic situation evolved in the bar following one meet:

We were in New Orleans for a meet, and we were invited by a heavyweight named Bill Klock to go drinking. His lady friend watched the meet—but I could tell she focused only on me. After the meet, we all ended up drinking at La Casa de los Marinos, the raucous and rowdy Cuban bar near the Mississippi River frequented by foreign seaman and merchant marines. The woman walked up to me and said she wanted to be with me for the night. I told you that I was leaving with her and you said I could not do that and that I needed to ride back with the team. I said, “see you in Lafayette.” You were so strait-laced you were in disbelief and shocked. Despite your pleas, I stayed overnight with the women. The next day she drove me back to Lafayette.


One of our lifters from New Orleans James H. Craig sent this email to me on February 19, 2021, providing more information on local bars we frequented following our meets there:

La Casa de los Merinos was a favorite spot for locals, tourists, the curious and merchant seaman from Cuba and Central America. It was locally known just as La Casa. It was located next to a bar called the Seven Seas. The Seas as it was called would attract local intellectuals and they would drink, philosophize and play chess into the night. I’m glad you and your buddies got to see La Casa at its best. It now only exists in our minds and a few old photos.


We all had different reasons for attending USL. For me it was to follow by brother’s footsteps in weightlifting and try to go to the Olympics. For Dr. Joseph Murry Jr., it was due to him reading a magazine and seeing results of the National Collegiate Weightlifting Championships. Here is the way Joe described it in his book:

So, this is where the story comes together. That summer after graduation, I was browsing through one of those Strength and Health muscle magazines and noticed an article about the National Collegiate Weightlifting Championships. The team that had won the competition for the previous two years was the University of Southwestern Louisiana in Lafayette, Louisiana, a school located two-and-a-half hours from New Orleans. It was at that moment that I realized that I had the rest of the answer to my Dad’s question. I wanted, one, to attend a school that offered a physical education major so that I could eventually become that teacher and coach that I aspired to become, and two, I wanted to attend a school where I could be a part of that championship weightlifting team, and three, I also wanted to have the opportunity to earn an athletic scholarship by trying out for and making it on the track team or weightlifting. I had new hope that those goals could be realized at one place, the University of Southwestern Louisiana.30

One of the athletes who was at USL in late 1960s became famous for several other groundbreaking reasons. In 2014, writer Paul Anthony Arco revisited the news headlines that had appeared in the Belvidere, Illinois, local newspaper 45 years previously. As a result, he retold the story of Judi Ford Nash, who became Miss America in 1968. Arco wrote the following in the story cited below: “After high school, Nash spent the summer traveling around the state as the reigning Miss Illinois County Fair. In September, she left Belvidere to attend the University of Southwestern Louisiana, where she competed on the men’s trampoline team. ‘I went down there because they had a premier trampoline coach, Jeff Hennessy,’ Nash says. ‘He was willing to accommodate a female on the men’s team.’ Nash not only became the first woman to win a men’s varsity gymnastics letter, but the first woman to win any letter in any sport at the university.”31 Since both the trampoline and weightlifters worked out daily in the men’s gym, we got to know Judi, who used her trampoline routine as her talent performance in order to win the coveted title of Miss America. Ford trained on the basketball court and we worked out in the old handball court.

Interestingly, the 1969 Mr. America was Boyer Coe, who was also a student at USL. Coe, a native of Lake Charles, Louisiana, and Judi Ford were the first two title holders of Mr. and Miss America attending the same university in the United States.

Boyer was born in Lake Charles, Louisiana on August 18, 1946. When he was 15 he started training at a studio in Lake Charles operated by Ray Roy, a brother of the famous trainer from Baton Rouge, Alvin Roy. Coe went on to claim the Mr. Universe title in 1969, 1973 and 1975.

George Weatherford recalls the one time that Boyer Coe competed in weightlifting before he seriously got into bodybuilding:

I competed against Boyer in the SAAU novice meet in New Orleans in the 181-pound class in 1964. I beat him handily and got Outstanding Lifter. He never competed in weightlifting again! I suppose you could say that I pushed him to bodybuilding—and made him Mr. America!


Because we were not given money by the university to travel to meets, we often had to be creative to save on money. Here is a story by Jess Shows of a trip that he and Boyer Coe took to Texas in the summer of 1961 and what they had to do to come home:

Warren, here is a little story. For a while in the early 1960s, Boyer Coe and I roomed together at USL. He and I went to a combination weightlifting and bodybuilding meet in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Anyway, we were going to leave early Sunday morning to come home, but our car, which was in a commercial parking lot, wouldn’t start. I looked under the hood to figure out what was the problem. I saw that the distributor wire was missing. I figured that the parking lot attendant had probably taken the distributor wire off of our car so that we couldn’t leave without paying his bill. To solve the problem, I simply stole the distributor wire off of someone else’s car in the parking lot and we drove home. Boyer’s main competition was a Mr. Texas. In bodybuilding they awarded individual parts of the body: best legs, best arms, best back etc. Well evidently the judges felt they had to give something to Mr. Texas so even though Boyer won the contest over all, they gave some best body part award to their native son Mr. Texas. Boyer was very upset about this because his body part was clearly much more developed. He complained about this all of the way home.


Boyer now lives in California and I reached out to him and asked him to send me some stories. He kindly complied with my request and sent some terrific memories from his high school years:

In the early summer of 1961, I was 15 and had been training for about two years. I convinced my father that I was ready to compete in a physique contest. I had read about a Teen Age Mr. All South Contest and Weight Lifting Championship to be held in Birmingham, Al. Being a patient man, he decided to go with me. In those days the bodybuilding contest did not start until after the lifting was over. This is the first time I became aware of “Poss” and Alvin. I remember them because they were the only ones in the weightlifting competition from Louisiana—and they were both victorious. They would certainly not remember me; they were older than me. One thing really stands out in my recollection: After everyone had finished the first lift—the press—Alvin took his first lift. I remember that he pressed 245 pounds which was a lot back in the early 1960s.

Regarding the contest, I had no experience in bodybuilding, except that I had seen Red Lerille in person when he gave a posing exhibition in Lake Charles at the YMCA in the fall of 1960. I had only seen photos in Strength and Health, Mr. America and Muscle Builder magazines. Yet, I was confident that I would do well.

The Teen Age Mr. South was won by Gable Boudreaux from New Orleans, who had an outstanding physique. Later, I learned that he was actually 21, but no one checked his age. I came in fifth. So, considering I did not know much, I had enough sense to get a pair of black swim trunks and rolled the legs up to try and show off my legs. Thus, my introduction to the world of bodybuilding.

Years later, when I finally did get to USL, I remember the names of those guys from New Roads, La.! In January of 1964, I placed third in the Mr. Louisiana, and in May, 1964, four days before I graduated from high school, I won the Mr. New Orleans contest. Actually, it was the biggest crowd I ever posed before—over 10,000 people in attendance.

Boyer eventually enrolled at USL and recited here the following stories of his relationships with some of the weightlifters:

I did meet George, but that was after I was enrolled at USL. I came to know Jess Shows, Pat Stewart and Poss Major, who later worked for Ken Guilbeaux from Lake Charles, who actually got me started in bodybuilding.

Jess lived with Frank Camalo and me for a short time when we were in college. The house was on Dean Street, on the side of Blackham Coliseum. As I recall, USL had some kind of experimental farm there where the agricultural department grew vegetables so under the cover of darkness Jess would sneak over and pick some. We always had fresh vegetables.

Jess went on one road trip with us to Tulsa, Oklahoma. It was Frank Camalo, Pat Stewart, Jess and me. Jess was always pulling stunts. For example, we are going down the highway and Frank was driving. Jess was in the back seat of car and he quietly slipped off the pillow case of Pat’s pillow and quickly pulled it over Frank’s head! Thank God Frank managed to get it off, otherwise the outcome would have not been pretty!

The only reason I went to USL was strictly because Red Lerille had his gym in Lafayette. I had already made up my mind at age 16 that was where I was going and learn everything I could from Red. This has proven to be a life-long friendship. I greatly value Red as a friend. We still talk at least once a week. In fact, the day after I graduated from high school—after an all-night party—I came home, packed my car and moved to Lafayette that same day.

The following appeared in the 1967 USL yearbook L’Acadien:

Rated as the team to beat in the nation, the USL weightlifters won the National Championships in 1966 for the second consecutive year. This marked the third time in the last four years that the strong men have accomplished this outstanding feat. Determination and hard work have proven successful. The USL team has lost but few meets in the last four years.

USL is especially proud of its 148-pound lifter, Jim Reinhardt, who was named National Collegiate champion last year. Other lifters scoring points in the National Championship were Mike Williams, Joseph Poss Major, Warren Perrin, Alvin Chustz, George Weatherford and Pat Stewart. The experienced lifters, along with the promising beginners, always prove too much for competition, thus making the team the most victorious team in USL’s sports history.

George Weatherford prepares to complete a 270-pound press at the NCAA National Collegiate Weightlifting Championships held at the University of Maryland in 1966. Photo courtesy Strength and Health magazine, August, 1966.

30 Dr. Joseph Murry Jr., Coming of Age, (New Orleans, Louisiana, JHM Publishing, February, 2018), page 8.

31 Paul Anthony Arco, PAA, ‘There She Is, Miss America: Catching up with Judi Ford Nash,’ Northwest Quarerly.Com, Spring, 2014, accessed 20 February 2020,